Who was here? Clues from Wildlife Sign

wolf track by Ken Bevis
Wolf track in road mud in northeast Washington state. This log scale ruler marks tenths of a foot, so the track is about 5 and a half inches long. Photo: Ken Bevis/DNR.

The bull elk stalks through the forest, holding his enormous antlers back so he doesn’t tangle in the brush. The tiny warbler flits through the canopy, seldom letting us have a good look. The woodpecker chisels for food and cavities in dead wood. Small mammals creep along under the edge of down logs. Cougar and bobcat slink around the forest edges.

Wildlife captures our imagination, filling the forest with life, but can be difficult to observe directly. Yet, we can discover some of what wildlife use our lands through keen observation.

Keep a Record

I encourage small forest landowners to keep some kind of record of what sort of wildlife they observe and encounter on their property.

Excerpt from a wildlife journal
Excerpt from a wildlife journal kept by a family living near the town of Curlew in northeast Washington state.

It could be as simple as a journal entry with species, specific location, behavior and numbers, all written in a notebook or hard bound book. Some keep an electronic record on their computer or mobile phone. Any method is good, because it gives you a chance to compare notes from year to year, while reminding us all to try to become experts on the kinds of wildlife using our property.

Look for “Sign”

Sign is an old word and expression referring to physical things telling us about our environment.

Many animals will leave behind sign, telling us of their presence and their lives.

Droppings (poop or scat) are a sign that can usually be identified to species. We often find some poop along our walks, and sometimes wonder what it is and what it can tell us. Note the shape, location, freshness. Don’t touch too much (wash afterwards), but pull it apart and see what is in it.

A good reference for thinking about scat is the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management at www.icwdm.org.

Once on the website you’ll find several questions whose answers can help to narrow the possibilities for what sort of scat you’ve observed. These questions include:

  • White in the droppings? This is from a bird, or even a reptile
  • Size: Length? Width? Consider the expected size of the anus of the animal it came from.
  • Shape: Is it like a pellet? Tubular? What are the ends shaped like?
  • Where did you find it? Under a tree? On the trail?
  • Are there pieces of bone or hair? Seeds or fruit pits?
  • Where are you? What kind of habitat is it? What are the possible animals?

Use these clues to figure it out. Become familiar with the different forms of deer poop, and what bear or coyote scat looks like.

Tracks

Deer and elk leave tracks (and rubbed small trees in the fall). Moose have big feet and distinctive tracks. Bear and cougar are very different.

It’s more difficult to find tracks of smaller animals but it can be done. Tracks are often distinctive, but need to be put down in the right substrate. Mud along roadside puddles is perfect medium for track impressions. Walking with a landowner east of Colville, we found the print of a lone wolf in a muddy puddle on a remote forest road. Location, shape and size tell us it was wolf. The landowner’s big golden retriever was along and the dog’s track was only two-thirds the size of this one.

Light snow on a hard surface also is a great way to find tracks. We all remember the day when the snow was just right and we could suddenly see what animals had passed by. Dusty roads can work too. Ever see insect tracks in the dust?

Critter Parts

Sometimes bones or feathers we find can give us clues. Think about the body structure of an animal. Hard and white larger bones are mammal. Bird bones are delicate, and even the largest birds (eagles, ravens, or geese) have relatively small bones compared to a raccoon or snowshoe hare. These fine bones degrade quickly in the outdoors. Reptile bones are rarely found, and never amphibian bones. All animals share the same basic anatomy, and a great exercise is trying to reconstruct the body of the creature from the small clue of a bone, or collection of bones. Call it CSI wildlife.

Another important clue is the setting. Did the animal die from predation? Was it scavenged? How many pieces did you find and how old are they?

shrew mole
A shrew mole found dead. Photo: Ken Bevis/DNR.

Individual feathers are usually molted, or shed, in the normal course of the bird replacing its resplendent covering. Try to figure out the species by color, pattern and size. Which part of the bird did it come from? A pile of feathers, often on a log, can indicate a kill by a hawk, usually an accipiter like a Cooper’s, sharp-shinned or goshawk. They will pluck breast feathers, and some tail feathers, and either eat the rest right there, or carry the carcass to a favored feeding spot.

Rarely do we find whole dead animals because the forces of scavenging and rot are so formidable.

Recently, however, I did find a dead shrew-mole (an unusual mammal) on a forest road near Mt. Rainier. It was still floppy, and I do not know why the animal was dead. But it did give open up a teachable moment, and I learned about Neurotrichus gibbsii, and this amazing little critter’s lifestyle.

Song and Call

In the springtime, territorial songs and calls of birds will reveal species and defended territories, but it takes a trained ear to differentiate between the subtle calls. There are several good apps now that link song to bird species. Go out early in the day with someone who is good at “birding by ear,” and you will be amazed at what is out there.

Mammals don’t vocalize very much. Coyotes call often in the late spring and summer when pups are exploring. Elk bugle in September and October. Deer sometimes bleat. But in general, hearing a mammal is uncommon.

Tree Sign

beaver sign on tree
Clear sign that a beaver was here. Photo Ken Bevis/DNR

Beavers are the only critter to chew through large tree stems. Deer and elk rub saplings leaving bald areas on the tree’s lower trunk. Woodpeckers leave distinctive holes in trees for feeding and nesting. Bears can strip the cambium off of small diameter saplings in wet forests. Tree sign is among the best because it lasts a long time!

Wildlife is elusive but not invisible if we are alert to all of the ways of detecting and understanding the amazing animals we share our forest with. Open your senses to the little pieces of evidence all around us as we walk in the woods!

Send me your wildlife photos, pictures of sign and stories so I can share them when teaching our Coached Planning classes this year. And consider signing up for a Coached Planning course when one is help near you, or take part in our online version of the course this winter.

By Ken Bevis, stewardship wildlife biologist, Washington Department of Natural Resources, ken.bevis@dnr.wa.gov

My, What Big Teeth You Have! Living with Big Predators on Small Forest Lands

Methow Valley cougar: Photo: Ken Bevis/DNR.
A trail camera with remote sensors captured this image of a mother cougar in the Methow Valley. Photo: Don McIvor (see more of this cougar and her cubs in McIvor’s video linked in this article).

“Lions and tigers and bears. Oh my!” Remember in the Wizard of Oz how Dorothy and her three companions (four if you count Toto), chanted this phrase in the creepy forest while looking over their shoulders nervously for certain doom?

Sometimes people who have moved out to their own little piece of paradise in a rural area feel this same trepidation, particularly after hearing a neighbor or news story about a predator encounter. It’s important to consider that we now live in someone else’s neighborhood, namely that of our rich Washington wildlife. This includes some significant predators. But don’t worry too much. With knowledge and good habits, we can peacefully coexist with these animals.

Worries over these big toothy critters include indirect effects, such as losing livestock or pets, or seeing damage to infrastructure from bears getting into garbage or destroying bee hives. These also may be sparked by fears of direct encounters with these animals. Here I will present a few facts, stories, and some links to good resources.

Territory

Predators tend to have large territories, and will continually cross ownerships in their quest for survival. This means that the home ranges of predators usually cover far more land than our average small forest landowner. If you see one, it probably is either passing through, or has found just what it needs there for a limited time (See cougar story below).

We have a rich variety of meat eaters across our landscape, with varying species and populations depending on where you are. Black bears, cougar, wolves, coyote, bobcat and fox all live with us, and sometimes thrive on our forest lands. Their life histories require killing of prey, and the size of prey generally correlates with the size of the predator. For example, coyotes eat mice and voles, cougars eat deer.

Mostly, we coexist with these animals and never even know they are there. But sometimes we notice. Smaller predators generally cause small scale problems, such as the occasional loss of pets (cats and small dogs) or small livestock (such as chickens). Those causing the deepest consternation for landowners are the larger predators, particularly black bear, and cougar. (Wolves are large and wide ranging, sometimes taking range livestock, but rarely causing problems for small forest landowners or threatening people directly. Hence I won’t discuss wolves here. Check the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife’s website for useful information about dealing with wolves and all sorts of other wildlife.)

Cougars

Cougars occur in most forested regions of our state, in varying populations, but basically can occur wherever prey, mostly deer, occur. Some of the Puget Sound islands are currently without cougars, perhaps due to historic extirpation, but one recently appeared on Vashon Island and has been quite the phenomenon there.

Cougar along Skagit River
Cougar along Skagit River. Used with permission of landowner

Cougar observations are rare, and those of us who have been fortunate enough to see one in the wild remember it vividly. Even rarer events are attacks on people (and pets) but they do occur. Precautions can be taken, particularly if active cougar sign is about. They are outlined in the WDFW publication, Living with Cougars. Remember, cougars prey primarily on deer. If you choose to feed deer, you may also be inadvertently attracting cougars.

I heard a landowner near Spokane tell me a story from his neighborhood of part time landowners, (where he lives full time), with seven deer feeders. These were the barrel variety with a timer that causes the noisy machine to come on at a set time. The deer would come running for the spray of delicious corn. Needless to say, the neighborhood has a healthy population of resident whitetail deer. There is also a resident mother cougar and her cubs. Nearly everyone had seen this big cat and several youngsters following her around. The neighborhood alarm was substantial. It was exciting but probably dangerous for all concerned, the cougar in particular. To my knowledge, the situation has not changed at the time of this writing.

Here is an interesting story about cougars from by my good friend, Don McIvor. He provided this transcript and wonderful video to add to this topic.

I received a trail camera for Christmas a few years ago and put it out on our 20-acre property near Twisp, Wash., in early January. A fresh snowfall blanketed the ground, wiping the forest floor clean and leaving few clues as to a good spot to mount the camera. I found a faint set of tracks, almost completely obscured by the new snow, and strapped the camera to a nearby tree. The photograph here (see above) is the very first image captured by the camera; you could have knocked me over with a feather! What followed was about a 10-day visit from this female cougar and her three cubs. I repositioned the camera to a nearby spot where the snow was so compacted I couldn’t distinguish the tracks. Turns out this area was immediately adjacent to a deer the mother had killed, and the packed-down snow was the cubs’ playground. I managed to document much of the visit with video and still photography. This was probably a once-in-a-lifetime event and I am pleased our small property could host the big cats, even if only for the short-term. This rare glimpse into the lives of these graceful creatures also illustrates our property’s role in the broader landscape where we help to maintain populations of animals that need large blocks of habitat to survive.

Black Bear

Black bears are big, cute, roly-poly, cartoonish characters; and are also the other big predator we may encounter on our small forest lands. Most of us have bears about. They are omnivorous but opportunistic predators, and will eat most anything they can find, including the occasional deer fawn or elk calf. They tend to be solitary and shy, avoiding humans whenever possible. They can be aggressive towards humans, but it is very rare and usually associated with a mother bear with cubs. Black bears are a game animal and may be taken during legal hunting seasons.

Black bear over carcass remains; image captured by remote sensor camera about 100 yards from Ken Bevis’ house. Photo: Ken Bevis.

Black bears are famous as scavengers and will take advantage of free food. Avoid leaving pet food or garbage out in bear country. Bird feeders can also lead to bear attention. If bears find your feeders, take them down until the bear moves on. “A fed bear is a dead bear” is a saying among wildlife control folks. Habituating bears to human food will lead to trouble, especially for the bear. “Problem” bears are sometimes relocated by WDFW but this is a last resort in situations where the bear has become habitual to a location and human safety is at issue.

Trail cameras are an excellent tool for viewing wildlife on your property. They are a subject for a future article!

The Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife has an excellent source of information on these critters in its Living with Wildlife Series

The message here is, if you live in wild lands, expect wild animals. Live accordingly.

And please send me good stories and photos!

By Ken Bevis, DNR stewardship wildlife biologist, Washington Department of Natural Resources, ken.bevis@dnr.wa.gov

Fall is Tree Thinning Time for Forest Landowners

Ponderosa pine stand thinned and pruned
Ponderosa pine stand thinned and pruned to prevent spread of low-intensity ground-level fires into the crowns. Photo: US Forest Service.

Fall is just around the corner and for those who own forested land, if you have not already done so, you may want to consider thinning some trees out. People who own forested property are often hesitant to remove trees for various reasons. Why should you thin? What are the advantages?

Forest health

Many people think of a forest as a stand of trees existing together in harmony. In reality, a forest, particularly a young forest, contains trees competing with one another for their life-sustaining resources: sunlight, water, and nutrients.

There’s even a priority list of sorts within individual trees. It varies depending on the species but, in general, the order in which resources are allocated is, from highest priority to lowest priority:

  1. Maintenance of respiration
  2. Production of fine roots
  3. Reproduction
  4. Height growth
  5. Diameter growth
  6. Insect and disease resistance mechanisms, and
  7. Storage

A dense stand of tall, thin lodgepole pine, is a good example of a stand where there are enough available resources to allocate up to priority number 4, height growth, but not enough resources to allocate much to priority number 5, diameter growth, or beyond. This lack of resources will affect overall forest health, as the trees will not be able to allocate resources to insect and disease resistance mechanisms.

What sort of insect and disease resistance mechanisms do trees have? Let’s use bark beetles as an example, since certain species of bark beetles can cause extensive tree mortality.

In most coniferous species a resin duct system produces oleoresin when the tree is wounded, such as a broken branch. Oleoresin is basically a mixture of essential oil (turpentine) and nonvolatile solids (rosin). Oleoresin is considered the primary defense of conifers against bark beetle attack. Beetles that attempt to attack a conifer that is in good health and capable of producing adequate, pressurized oleoresin are typically immobilized in the resin or killed by drowning in it. The chemical makeup of the oleoresin is important as well, as some of the volatiles released from the oleoresin are toxic to bark beetles.

Dense stands, which tend to grow slowly, are consistently associated with bark beetle infestations. The susceptibility of a stand to bark beetle infestations may be changed by reducing competition between trees; in other words, thinning. In western North America, thinning has long been advocated as a preventative measure to reduce or alleviate the amount of bark beetle caused tree mortality. Thinning improves tree vigor and growth. It also decreases the likelihood of bark beetle attacks on individual trees by allowing the site’s available resources to be concentrated on fewer stems, which means trees will have enough resources to allocate to priority number 6 (insect and disease resistance mechanisms).

Wildfire risk reduction

Successful fire exclusion over the past 60 to 70 years has resulted in greater stand densities and a change in species composition. In that span of time, many forests in dry ecosystems, such as eastern Washington, have transitioned from fire-adapted, open ponderosa pine stands to dense pine and Douglas-fir stands. In moist forests, the change has been from open stands of western white pine and western larch to relatively short, closed stands of grand fir, western hemlock and western redcedar. These changes have led to an increase in the occurrence of crown fires (fire that spreads from treetop to treetop), the most intense type of wildfire, and often the most difficult to contain.

Thin from below
Example of thin from below. Photo A: Before thinning. Photo B: After thinning. Photos: Michelle Ensminger.

 

Ponderosa pine, western white pine and western larch all tend to be tall and self-prune (the natural removal of lower limbs that don’t receive enough sunlight to survive). Western white pine and western larch have lower volume crowns and carry their crowns well above surface fuels compared to true firs, Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar. Because of these attributes, western white pine and western larch do not carry crown fires well and tend not to create ladder fuels (fuels in the lower canopy that carry fire up into the crowns of trees). In contrast, stands dominated by true firs, Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and/ or western redcedar do not self-prune well. They tend to carry large branches low in the canopy and have relatively voluminous crowns. Stands dominated by these species usually support crown fires.

Thinning cannot alter all variables that influence fire behavior, but it can influence factors such as species composition, available fuel, fuel arrangement, fuel moisture and surface winds. The objective of thinning in wildfire risk reduction is usually to prevent or slow the spread of crown fire by reducing surface and ladder fuels. Thinning also raises the height of overstory crowns and breaks up the connectedness of crowns, which reduces tree-to-tree spread of crown fires.

Wildlife management

Species associated with fairly open canopies and an open forest floor may benefit from thinning treatments. Thinning a stand of trees increases the amount of sunlight reaching the understory, which stimulates the growth of grasses, wildflowers and native shrubs. Elk, deer, and moose will likely benefit from the increase in forage quantity and quality. Small mammals such as chipmunks and deer mice may increase in number, particularly after thinning in Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine forests. This may be advantageous to species of hawks, owls and eagles that prey on small mammals in open forests and small clearings. Although not often considered as part of the wildlife community, pollinators such as moths and butterflies may also benefit from changes in structural diversity as a result of fuel reduction treatments that increase the amount of light reaching foliage and the forest floor.

Timber production

If you are managing your forested land for future timber production, thinning will be an important part of your management plan. Thinning releases resources to the residual trees allowing them to allocate to their fifth priority, diameter growth, which leads to an increase in tree volume. This increase in diameter growth results in an increase in overall stand value.

Thinning techniques

The tools and methods by which thinning is implemented are quite varied, and can result in significantly different stand structures. The type of thinning you select may depend on your objectives and on individual stand characteristics, such as species composition.

When managing for forest health and fuel reduction, private landowners typically use the “thin from below” method. Thinning from below consists of removing trees from the lower canopy, leaving larger trees to occupy the site. This method mimics mortality caused by competition or surface fires and concentrates available resources on larger, healthier, fire-adapted trees, while removing the stagnant, unhealthy trees.

Thinning is best accomplished in the late summer and early fall if possible. At this time trees will be least susceptible to damage from the thinning operation and the populations of insects that may be attracted to the slash created will be low. Winter also is an acceptable time to thin, but can lead to soil compaction and erosion if done at the wrong time. Thinning in spring and summer is not recommended as it can attract insects such as bark beetles and can affect wildlife, particularly nestlings.

For more information about thinning your property, please visit the Forest Stewardship Program and the Landowner Assistance Center pages on the Washington State Department of Natural Resources website.

By Melissa Fischer, Forest Health Specialist, DNR Northeast Region, Washington State Department of Natural Resources

 

Resources to  learn more:

Fettig, C.J., Klepzig, K.D., Billings, R.F., Munson, A.S., Nebeker, T.E., Negron, J.F., and Nowak, J.T. 2007. The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 238: 24-53.

Graham, R.T., Harvey, A.E., Jain, T.B. and Tonn, J.R. 1999. The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in western forests. U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. PNW-GTR-463.

Pilliod, D.S., Bull, E.L., Hayes, J.L. and Wales, B.C. 2006. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the western United States: A synthesis. U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. RMRS-GTR-173.

How to Make a Wildlife Tree

PoemsAh, trees. Those leafy icons of life and nature, inspiring writers through the ages…

Douglas squirrel.
Wildlife tree dweller: Douglas squirrel. Photo: Ken Bevis.

In the forest, trees exist in many life phases simultaneously, from seedlings to giants, and then as standing dead trees (snags) and down logs. Natural forces constantly work on trees, causing them to grow, then die, crack, and rot. The individual fate of a tree can vary tremendously depending on many factors including; species, wounds, rot, soil moisture, wind, branch breakage, lightning and more. Dead trees are an essential part of forest ecology.

Wildlife Species that Benefit from Woody Habitat Structures

Excellent-natural-wildlife-tree-crop
This excellent natural wildlife tree features numerous cavities wildlife. Photo: Ken Bevis.

Well over 100 species of wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests depend on dead wood for crucial habitat. Animals such as woodpeckers, songbirds, squirrels, salamanders and owls use these woody structures as places to feed, and as cover for resting and reproduction. The solid woody cylinder of a dead tree can be a boon for these animals, particularly if in a configuration that encourages wood rot while providing woody structure.

“Wildlife tree” refers to those trees, living, dead or some of both, with dead wood features (holes, cracks, loose bark, etc.) providing habitats for cavity dwelling species. In fact, nearly one-third of our forest wildlife species must have some form of “wildlife trees” on their home range for survival.

The best type of natural wildlife tree may be a broken off snag, with adequate height and diameter to provide for multiple wildlife habitat needs. These trees will stand the longest, as the weight of the tree top is gone, softening rot proceeds down the stem from the top, and these woody structures can persist for many years. Look for these venerable habitats in the deep forest.

Human Activities can Mimic Habitat Creation Processes

People actively cut trees across the landscape for many reasons, including harvest, landscaping and site preparation. But rather than always removing whole trees, arborists and loggers can easily create long-lived, high quality wildlife trees by simply shortening (or “topping”) the tree to an acceptable height, and then leaving the cut stem for weather and woodpeckers to do their work creating valuable habitat.

Tim Brown, wildlife tree creation pioneer.
Tim Brown, wildlife tree creation pioneer. Photo: Kelsey Ketcheson.

Tim Brown is a pioneer in wildlife tree creation. He started making wildlife trees in the 1970s when working first as a logger, arborist, and then as a forest firefighter. He has a lifelong love for wildlife, and noticed many animals fleeing from fallen snags while he was falling timber. “I started thinking about it and would come home and make wildlife trees. I started in gardens and with landscape trees.” he said.

His business, Frontier Tree Service, near Lake Sammamish, was well-known for creating many wildlife trees, which still stand in National Parks (including Sequoia), as well as National Refuges, National Forests and greenbelts throughout the Northwest and across the country. He worked as a consultant to assist scientists and land managers with wildlife habitat projects around the world as well. Today, Tim works to share his expertise whenever possible with interested landowners, arborists and wildlife biologists. We went out to a private land near Snoqualmie to demonstrate some of his techniques for this article.

Selecting the ‘Right’ Tree

Farrell-McWorter Park
A wildlife tree in Farrell McWorter Park in Redmond, Washington, created over 30 years ago and now used by many types of wildlife. Photo: Ken Bevis.

Trees to be made into wildlife trees should be solid enough to be worked, preferably by a qualified tree climber or someone working from a bucket truck. They also should be a long-lived species and in a location where future safety issues, such as dwellings, roads, etc., won’t demand that the tree come down. Tim recommends conifers, particularly Douglas fir, cedar or ponderosa pine, as preferred wildlife trees, as they tend to last longer. He points out, however, that all species can function, and broadleaf trees can be worked too.

We identified a clump of root-rot killed Douglas fir for our demonstration, well away from the road. Tim determined that a recently dead tree approximately 24” in diameter was sound enough to climb. After ascended the tree with climbing gear, he cut off the top about 45 feet up, and used a chainsaw to create a jagged top. A smaller, softer unclimbable, dead tree stood close by and he cut the top out of that one while leaning over from the first tree. Both were shortened enough that they have a higher likelihood of snag longevity after treatment.

Identifying “strike distance” to high traffic “targets” is a part of this selection. The overall height of the created wildlife tree should usually be less than the distance to the target, unless there is very little traffic. Remember that the shortened tree will have little “sail” or weight on the top, so is unlikely to simply topple over. In general, wildlife tree stubs fall apart in place over many years rather than falling over.

Removing the Crown

“Topping” trees is considered bad form for arborists working on valuable ornamental trees. However, this same technique can create high quality wildlife trees that will stand for many decades and provide habitat for many, many species.

(Side note: In logging units, a “hot saw” or mechanical tree harvester, can easily make short snags by cutting off stems at between 8 and 20 feet.)

 

Lofty Decisions

How much to cut off?

How much of the trunk to remove when creating a wildlife tree?

“We want the tree to stay up as long as possible,” says Tim, who recommends assessing potential wildlife trees for lean, overall stability and sway. In wind sheltered areas, more of the tree can be left. In general, the larger the diameter, the better. Tim suggests that the top diameter of cut trees should be at least 6” in order to provide enough wood for smaller cavity excavator species. Trees are generally cut 1/3 to 2/3 of the way up, resulting in a wildlife tree between 25 and 60 feet tall, though it can be higher if conditions allow it. Most branches are removed, with some stubs or short branches retained when possible.

“Sometimes I’ll leave some green branches so the tree dies slowly and remains stable longer,” notes Tim, adding that causing the tree to die slowly allows its still-living roots to hold it up longer.

jagged-top
LEFT: Tim Brown uses a chainsaw to make a jagged top in topped tree. RIGHT: Example of jagged top created with chainsaw cuts and hammer blows. Photos: Ken Bevis.

The top of the wildlife tree should be “roughed up” with a chainsaw. This is accomplished by administering a series of v-shaped cuts across the top, then crisscrossing those with the saw from multiple horizontal angles.

“The top is jagged to better collect moisture and organic matter. Make it slightly concave in the middle to collect water,” Tim recommends. He also makes a few deep vertical cuts down into the stem at the top to help introduce water and rot into the stem more quickly.

Finally, banging on the cut top with the back of an ax will break off the flat surfaces and leave it looking entirely natural. This jagged top will provide more surface area to introduce rot into the stem.

Putting Cut Material to Good Use

The fallen top of the tree can be harvested as a saw log, used as firewood, or left on the ground to provide down-log habitat. Down wood has important value as habitat too, notes Tim, and offers other habitat features to work on, which we will describe in a future article.

Most managed landscape settings have a limited number of number of wildlife trees (those with soft dead wood that provide an opportunity for wildlife to create and use cavities). It has, and continues to be, a standard practice by many landowners to remove dead trees because of safety concerns or to use as firewood and other materials.

before-after
Wildlife habitat tree demonstration site before (left) and after (right) treatment of trees.

While the habitat value of wildlife trees becoming more widely understood, there remains a pressing need to create more of them by incorporating the maintenance and creation of these structures into routine management practices.

The time to create wildlife trees is whenever the opportunity exists, but particularly when there is a shortage of these structures in the forest. Ideally, there will be 6-10 of these tree per acre, with half of them in decayed soft condition and the rest hard.

Providing and creating wildlife trees is a simple and effective tactic for small forest landowners to encourage wildlife on their property. There’s lots of life in dead trees!

by Ken Bevis, DNR Stewardship Wildlife Biologist, ken.bevis@dnr.wa.gov, with Tim Browntimothykbrown@msn.com

Small Forest Landowners Needed to Help in Fisher Recovery

The Pacific fisher (Pekania pennanti) is one of the larger members of the weasel family and is only found in North America’s boreal and temperate forests. Through excessive trapping and habitat loss, fishers were eliminated from Washington state by the mid-1900s. The species is currently listed as endangered in the state of Washington and is under consideration for listing as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). This federal listing decision will be made in early April 2016.

Pacific fisher
Listed by the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission as an endangered species, the Pacific fisher was reintroduced into the Olympic Peninsula in 2008. Photo: Pacific Southwest Region-USFS

The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Park Service, US Geological Survey and the US Forest Service to help recover the fisher. Recovery areas have been identified for the Olympic and Cascade ranges. Successful reintroductions occurred in Olympic National Park from 2008 to 2010, and reintroductions are now occurring in the South Cascades (Mount Rainier National Park and Gifford Pinchot National Forest). In two or three years, reintroductions will follow in the North Cascades (North Cascades National Park and Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest).

In addition to reintroducing the species, WDFW has also been preparing for the potential federal listing by developing a voluntary conservation approach for private landowners – a Candidate Conservation Agreement with Assurances (CCAA).

Simply stated, those who agree to take certain measures to protect fishers would not be subject to future land-use restrictions that might result if the species is listed under the ESA.

fishers_factsheet-final020216-002
Fisher recovery areas in Washington state. Source: Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

How Can Forest Landowners Help?

Wildlife managers are seeking help from forest landowners to work as partners in the recovery of fishers in Washington State. Forest landowners can qualify for this type of conservation agreement by voluntarily signing on to the CCAA administered by WDFW. Proposed conservation measures applicable to all enrollees include:

  • Allowing WDFW access to your property to monitor fishers and their den sites.
  • Providing protection to denning females and their young by avoiding disturbance around known denning sites while occupied (generally between the months of March and September).

The draft CCAA is currently going through the federal review and approval process, which includes a 30-day comment period. Once approved, landowners can voluntarily sign on to the CCAA until such time as fishers become listed under the federal ESA. In order for landowners to take advantage of this opportunity, they must be signed on to the CCAA prior to listing (which could be early April of this year (2016)).

Species Information

The species is dark brown and has a long bushy tail, short rounded ears, short legs, and a low-to-the-ground appearance. Fishers mate from late March to early May, with females giving birth to a litter of one to four kits the following year. While birthing dens are always in cavities of live trees, females may move the kits to other den structures, including cavities in snags or downed logs, or to log piles or ground burrows. Fishers prey on small mammals such as deer mice, voles, and squirrels throughout their 25- to 50-mile home ranges.

They prefer low- and mid-elevation forests with moderate to dense canopy closure and an abundance of large woody structures such as cavity trees, snags, and downed logs.

For more information on the fisher, the CCAA and enrolling in the program, please contact Gary Bell by phone at 360-902-2412 or via email at Gary.Bell@dfw.wa.gov

Please respond before April to ensure you are included in the CCAA prior to possible listing.